While the facts themselves are exempt, other creative elements in a compilation of facts may warrant copyright protection. Card Prices Update established that the specific selection of which facts to include in a list, when done as the result of a creative act, merits protection even when the individual elements do not.
(See also 17 USC 103(b).) The WIPO Copyright Treaty is an international treaty that follows this concept; it has been adopted also by the European Union (EU) in its EU Database Directive, a sui generis protection that prohibits any significant "extraction" or "re-utilization" of information from a database created by significant effort.
The United States Copyright Office, in its Compendium of U. Copyright Office Practices, has stated its position that works of the US Postal Service are not "works of the U. At the same time, many countries declare their edicts, as well as those of other countries, such as laws and court decisions, to be exempt from copyright.
Such exemptions are typically narrowly defined and cannot be construed to mean “any publication by a government office”.
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The names and numbers therein are, in the doctrine of case law (e.g. Rural), "facts that were discovered", rather than the result of a creative expression or judgment.However, there is no such thing as the public domain on the Internet.International treaties, like the Berne Convention, are not self-executing and do not supersede local law.Works of the United Nations or its agencies or of the OAS are subject to copyright.A second category of works that in general cannot be copyright protected are those that have no (or no significant) creative content: they do not pass the threshold of originality.