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First, let’s take a look at how the election process works with a basic OSPF configuration.
We can identify pretty quickly how the OSPF network is working by showing OSPF status on the eth0 interface of R2: [email protected]:~$ show ip ospf interface eth0 eth0 is up ifindex 2, MTU 1500 bytes, BW 0 Kbit < UP, BROADCAST, RUNNING, MULTICAST> Internet Address 10.1.1.1/24, Broadcast 10.1.1.255, Area 0.0.0.0 MTU mismatch detection:enabled Router ID 0.0.0.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DROther, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 0.0.0.5, Interface Address 10.1.1.5 Backup Designated Router (ID) 0.0.0.4, Interface Address 10.1.1.4 Multicast group memberships: OSPFAll Routers Timer intervals configured, Hello 10s, Dead 40s, Wait 40s, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 0.257s Neighbor Count is 4, Adjacent neighbor count is 2 [email protected]:~$ As you can see, R1 has detected the DR is R5, shown not only by the router-id that I configured (0.0.0.5) but also by the detected interface IP address 10.1.1.5.
To understand the purpose of a Designated Router in OSPF, you need to know how OSPF distributes routing information around the network.
Since they’re all set to a priority of 1, the Router ID is used to break the tie, and the highest Router ID is elected the DR, and the second highest the BDR. Make up whatever reason you want, but my made-up reason is that R1 and R2 are far more reliable routers than the others - maybe they’re newer equipment.Besides the blog, we have our security auditing tool Lynis. I was inspired by a (relatively) recent post by Jeremy Stretch at that explained OSPF designated router configuration in Cisco IOS.Lynis is an open source security tool to perform in-depth audits.It helps with system hardening, vulnerability discovery, and compliance.
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Observe the following diagram: In this network, all five routers are connected to the same layer 2 segment via a central switch.