Direct dating archaeology

Cactus Hill is an important Clovis period site located on the Nottaway River of Virginia, with a possible pre-Clovis site below it, dated to between 18,000 and 22,000 cal BP.

The Pre Clovis site may have been redeposited, and the stone tools are somewhat problematic.

Fortuitous preservation has allowed researchers to collect textiles from the cave, two occupations of which are dated to the Pre-Clovis component.

Stone artifacts from the earliest levels are made up of flakes, scrapers, and a tanged triangular-bladed projectile point.

Artifacts include about 100 stone specimens, with tools such as a microblade core, burins and burin spalls, similar to Dyuktai tradition in Siberia.

A total of 36,000 animal bones were found in the caves, mostly reindeer, moose, horse, Dall sheep, mammoth, and bison.

If Monte Verde was the first site seriously considered as Pre-Clovis, than Meadowcroft Rockshelter is the site which should have been seriously considered.

Artifacts recovered from the site included large mammal remains, stone tools and culturally modified bones.

The existence of Pre-Clovis sites has been widely discounted up until the past fifteen years or so, although evidence has slowly been growing and much of the archaeological community support these and other sites of the time period.

Ayer Pond is a bison butchery site, discovered by workmen in 2003 on Orcas Island off the mainland US coast in Washington state.

Artifacts from the Pre-Clovis levels include lanceolate-like preforms, discoidal cords, blades, and bladelets, as well as a variety of notches, gravers, and scrapers, which excavators suggest are ancestral to Clovis.

Guitarrero Cave is a rock shelter high in the Andes mountains (2580 meters above sea level) in the Ancash region of Peru, where human occupations date to approximately 12,100 years ago (cal BP).

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